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RONALD STAUBER In the Southwest, this gardening tradition consisted of cultivated tobacco, and two species of wild tobacco, along with maize, squash, beans, wild and cultivated amaranths, goosefoot and other weedy annuals that were encouraged or at least tolerated in the farm fields.
Cochiti Pueblo pipe; upper center and right: Cocopa reed cane cigarettes; lower center: Hopi clay pipe; lower left: Wild plants were clearly involved in the adoption of corn, tobacco, squash, and beans by the prehistoric Native Americans.
In both the Southwest and later the East, maize and tobacco did not arrive out of a vacuum, nor did they drop into one. They were already being grown to the south, in central Mexico, where maize-based agriculture began around B.
Or perhaps small agricultural groups expanded their ranges or maybe even migrated from one region to another. However it spread, farming was added to an already existing husbandry complex that involved the encouragement and even planting of a number of wild plants.
Two species of wild tobacco, as well as amaranth, goosefoot, purslane, globe mallow, and other plants that preferred disturbed soils, were included in the complex in the Southwest.
The early gardening culture Vinataba philip morris graduate trainee program essay the east grew goosefoot, marshelder and sunflowers, and may have grown wild squash and gourds, maygrass, knotweed and a few other plants.
After the addition of cultivated tobacco, corn, squash, and beans, agricultural societies rapidly evolved throughout North and South America. By the eve of European contact, cultivated tobacco was traded far to the north of its range, into northern Canada, and even the wild Nicotiana quadrivalvis variety multivalvis was encouraged, if not cultivated, in southern Alaska.
Similar processes were at work in South America, and by the time the Europeans arrived, the use and veneration of tobacco was a key, core element of all Native American cultures, with the exception of the Inuit Eskimo and Aleut, who were too far away to participate in the tobacco trade system.
From the southern tip of South America to southern Alaska, tobacco was ingested in many forms, including pipes, reed cane and corn husk cigarettes, even in maple and other wild plant leaves. It was also chewed, licked, snuffed, taken as eye drops, and even administered in enemas.
Father Sky and Mother Earth are sometimes shown in sandpaintings and on rugs.
Tobacco has remained a constant unifying force, linking all tribes together, linking all generations together for thousands of years.
Even as Native American religions changed and became organizationally more complex, tobacco use also became more complex, as did the activities of the deities who created it and who were created by it.
Snuff was popular in the eighteenth century but had faded to obscurity by the twentieth century. For the traditionalists, there is nothing recreational about tobacco, for it is considered a sacred plant, a lifeaffirming force, a food of the spirits, at times a god itself.
Tobacco leaves were and are smoked in pipes, cigars, and cigarettes. Leaves are chewed often with lime from shells and sometimes eaten. Resin and concentrates are licked. Tobacco powder is snuffed. Tobacco smoke is blown on the body and leaves are used medically as a poultice.
Tobacco incense is burned. Tobacco offerings are buried, cast on the ground, into the air, onto the water. The full illustration, showing nine panes, was redrawn from a figure in the Codex Vaticanus.
Beginning with individual medicine men and women who ministered to the religious and medical needs of their bands and other groups, American Indian religion became more organized as populations increased, beliefs changed, and outside political and economic relations evolved.
After the individual medicine people came the medicine societies, composed of most if not all of the members of the group, with different societies providing different medicines and religious ceremonies.
And eventually the societies evolved into priesthoods, whose memberships were restricted and often hereditary, and whose leaders became so powerful that theocracies often emerged, such as the Aztecs and Incas, whose leaders were the highest priests in the land. But whatever the level and scope of religious power, tobacco was and is still used, with even the medicine people, medicine societies, and priesthoods taking on tobacco-oriented themes and identities.
Thus there are Tobacco shamans in South and Central America who ingest the plant almost constantly, not only to heal and bless but also to commune directly with the tobacco spirits.As a Graduate of the Success Conversion Coaching Program (ACSTH approved program), I have completed 60 Approved Coach Specific Training Hours formally recognized by the International Coach Federation as additional hours of training toward an ICF credential.
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