Thesis timeline calculator

Even though I found a couple of conflicts between sources over exact dates, for the most part these can be considered accurate.

Thesis timeline calculator

Timesharing systems can support many users — sometimes hundreds — by sharing the computer with each user. CTSS operated until APL was widely used in scientific, financial, and especially actuarial applications. Powerful functions and operators in APL are expressed with special characters, resulting in very concise programs.

Each sequence represented a letter of the English alphabet, an Arabic numeral, an assortment of punctuation marks and symbols, or a function such as a carriage return.

ASCII can only represent Thesis timeline calculator to symbols, and for this reason many other languages are better supported by Unicode, which has the ability to represent oversymbols. Using a light pen and Sketchpad, a designer could draw and manipulate geometric figures on a computer screen.

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Blossoming into the best known of the early drawing applications, Sketchpad influenced a generation of design and drafting programs.

Although used mostly for engineering drawings, it had some artistic applications, including a famous drawing of Nefertiti that could be animated to a limited extent. Its use spread widely to schools all over the world. Over a decade later, most early personal computers were shipped with a version of BASIC embedded in their system, which opened up programming to an entirely new audience.

Based largely on the Algol 60 programming language, Simula grouped data and instructions into blocks called objects, each representing one facet of a system intended for simulation. In addition to simulation, Simula also has applications in computer graphics, process control, scientific data processing and other fields.

Initially a drawing program, LOGO controlled the actions of a mechanical "turtle," which traced its path with pen on paper. Electronic turtles made their designs on a video display monitor. Papert emphasized creative exploration over memorization of facts: I like to think of learning as an expertise that every one of us can acquire.

He called for abolishing the unrestricted GOTO statements used in higher-level languages, and argued that they complicated programming. The ACM considered the resulting acrimony sufficiently harmful that it established a policy of no longer printing articles taking such an assertive position against a coding practice.

Before CICS was introduced, many industries used punched card batch processing for high-volume customer transactions. As it allowed online transaction processing, CICS was able to replace this method and greatly sped up the way that companies interacted with their customers.

It was first used in the public utility industry for access to customer information and transactions, but soon after its release it was quickly adopted by a wide spectrum of industries including banking, oil, insurance and even smaller companies. Although it was originally intended to only last a few years, CICS is still in use today.

UNIX combined many of the timesharing and file management features offered by Multics, from which it took its name. Multics, a project of the mids, represented one of the earliest efforts at creating a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system.

The standard permits computers and peripheral devices to transmit information serially — that is, one bit at a time. RSC compatible ports were widely used for equipment like printers and modems. Compared to more modern interfaces, serial connections had slow transmission speeds, were bulky and have been largely replaced by USB ports on new PCs and peripheral equipment.

Pascal is introduced Niklaus Wirth The Pascal programming language, named after Blaise Pascal, a French physicist, mathematician and inventor turned philosopher, is introduced by Professor Niklaus Wirth. His aim with Pascal was to develop a programming language applicable to both commercial and scientific applications, and which could also be used to teach programming techniques to college students.

As such, Unix was easily ported to other computers and spread swiftly. C is still widely used today. Init had significant market share, in part because it came bundled with the Osborne 1 computer.

WordStar retained a loyal following well after Microsoft Word surpassed it in sales.

Software & Languages | Timeline of Computer History | Computer History Museum

IBM purchased Lotus in Microsoft introduces Word Microsoft Word 1. In a marketing blitz, Microsoft distributeddisks containing a demonstration version of its Word program in the November issue of PC World magazine, giving readers a chance to try the program for free.

Thesis timeline calculator

It competed with WordPerfect for market share as a word processing program, and it was not until Microsoft Word for Windows was introduced in that it became a global standard. This operating system called GNU for Gnu's Not Unix was going to be free of charge but also allow users the freedom to change and share it.Mar 15,  · Permalink.

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i am doing a research paper and i cant seem to find a good Thesis statement for it as this is the first time i am doing an academic paper for my MBA. This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing hardware: from prehistory until For narratives explaining the overall developments, see History of computing.

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Brandeis University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences is located just outside of Boston in Waltham, Massachusetts. GSAS is home to more than 40 PhD, master's, and post-baccalaureate programs in the social sciences, arts, humanities, education, natural sciences, computational sciences and physical sciences.

Brandeis University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences is located just outside of Boston in Waltham, Massachusetts. GSAS is home to more than 40 PhD, master's, and post-baccalaureate programs in the social sciences, arts, humanities, education, natural sciences, computational sciences and physical sciences.

The Cooper Union, est. , grants degrees in art, architecture and engineering and offers courses in continuing education in New York City's East Village.

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) | Brandeis University