Submit manuscript at https: It deals with the study of chemical and physical properties of pharmaceuticals, their components and their activities in living organisms.
Factors Related to Drugs: Lipid water solubility Lipid water solubility coefficient is the ratio of dissolution of drug in lipid as compared to water.
Greater the lipid water solubility coefficient, more is the lipid solubility of the drug and greater is the absorption. Less the coefficient, less is the lipid solubility and less is the absorption.
Water film exists on the membranes so part of the drugs must be water soluble to cross this water film Drugs with benzene ring, hydrocarbon chain, steroid nucleus and halogen groups in their structures are lipid soluble.
Molecular size Smaller the molecular size of the drugrapid is the absorption. There exist different processes involved in absorption for different molecular sizes.
Those with a large molecular size undergo endocytosis or facilitated diffusion, while those with smaller molecular sizes utilize aqueous diffusion or lipid channels. Particle size Particle may be composed either of a single molecule or more than hundred molecules.
Larger is the particle size, slower will be the diffusion and absorption and vice versa.
Degree of Ionization Different drugs are either acidic or basic and are present in ionized or unionized form, which is given by their pKa values. In the body, the ratio of the ionized and unionized forms depend on the pH of the medium. Acidic drugs are unionized in the acidic medium and basic drugs are unionized in the basic medium.
Acidic drugs are better absorbed from the acidic compartment. Physical Forms Drugs may exist as solids, liquids or gases. Gases are rapidly absorbed than the liquids, while the liquids are rapidly absorbed than the solids.
Thus the drugs in syrup or suspension form are rapidly absorbed than the tablets or capsules. Volatile gases used in general anesthesia are quickly absorbed through the pulmonary route.
Chemical Nature Chemical nature is responsible for the selection of the route of administration of drug. Drugs that cannot be absorbed through the intestines are given by the parenteral route.
Examples include heparin which is large molecular weight, and cannot be given orally. Simililarly, benzyl penicillin is degraded in the GIT, so is given parenterally.
Salt forms of drugs are better absorbed than the organic compounds when given orally.October TWO- DAY WORKSHOP ON CURRENT INDUSTRY TRENDS AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN PHARMA INDUSTRY. October INSA Medal for Young Scientist Journal of pharmacology & clinical research is an internationally accepted, peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality research articles, reviews and general articles in the field of pharmacology and clinical research.
Published since , this monthly journal reports current research in all aspects of physiology, nutrition, pharmacology, and toxicology.»More about the journal’s scope and Editorial Board.
Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine. p-Synephrine (or formerly Sympatol and oxedrine ) and m-synephrine are known for their longer acting adrenergic effects compared to norepinephrine.
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