Methods and techniques required to produce

Plaque assay[ edit ] Viral Plaques of Herpes Simplex Virus Plaque-based assays are the standard method used to determine virus concentration in terms of infectious dose. Viral plaque assays determine the number of plaque forming units pfu in a virus sample, which is one measure of virus quantity. This assay is based on a microbiological method conducted in petri dishes or multi-well plates.

Methods and techniques required to produce

How to Write a Summary of an Article? Methods and Techniques Required to Produce Mayonnaise Making mayonnaise Abtract A combination of oil, water, egg yolk, and stabilizers was combined in an effort to produce mayonnaise. The final emulsion was a result of a trial and error process to perfect the timing and order of the addition of ingredients.

The procedure was only attempted once. Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to determine the methods and techniques equired to produce mayonnaise.

Methods and techniques required to produce

Mayonnaise is an emulsion, which means that it is a stable combination of two liquids that are immiscible.

They key to this concept is that the combination must be stable. Water and oil, for example, do not combine to form an emulsion because of hydrogen bonds that form between each other in water molecules. These bonds prevent oil molecules from getting in. In order to create an emulsion, an emulsifier must be added to the combination.

An emulsifier is a compound that stabilizes emulsions. These emulsifiers, which are also often added to soap, have long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a hydrophilic water loving and hydrophobic water fearing ends.

This allows them to form a stable bridge between the hydrophilic water and the hydrophobic oil. Lecithin, a phospholipid with a hydrophobic head and two hydrophobic tails found in egg yolks, is one example of how emulsifiers can take shape.

HDL particles require an extra boost to improve their ability to act as an emulsifier because their particles are too large to coat the oil droplets without being separated from another.Although problem solving and decision making are different processes, it is often necessary to combine them when making a complex decision.

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Methods and techniques required to produce

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Chapter 3 Common Qualitative Methods. In this chapter we describe and compare the most common qualitative methods employed in project evaluations. 3 These include observations, indepth interviews, and focus groups. We also cover briefly some other less frequently used qualitative techniques.

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