In the glass furnaces were removed to the neighbouring island of Murano to remove the risk of fire from the city. Although Venice had constant contact with the East, there is no evidence that it was indebted to that source for its skill in glassmaking. Venetian enamelled glasses appear in the second half of the 15th century, and, although their technique is essentially similar to that of the Syrian glassmakers, it is likely that they are of independent development.
Master of the Life of the Virgina late Gothic Annunciation, c. Alte PinakothekMunich The origins of the Early Netherlandish school lie in the miniature paintings of the late Gothic period. According to Georges Hulin de LooHand G's contributions to the Turin-Milan Hours "constitute the most marvelous group of paintings that have ever decorated any book, and, for their period, the most astounding work known to the history of art".
The 16th-century art historian Giorgio Vasari claimed van Eyck invented the use of oil paint; a claim that, while exaggerated,  indicates the extent to which van Eyck helped disseminate the technique.
Van Eyck employed a new level of virtuosity, mainly from taking advantage of the fact that oil dries so slowly; this gave him more time and more scope for blending and mixing layers of different pigments,  and his technique was quickly adopted and refined by both Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden.
These three artists are considered the first rank and most influential of the early generation of Early Netherlandish painters.
Their influence was felt across northern Europe, from Bohemia and Poland in the east to Austria and Swabia in the south.
Van der Weyden was born Roger de la Pasture in Tournai. Simon Marmion is often regarded as an Early Netherlandish painter because he came from Amiensan area intermittently ruled by the Burgundian court between and Copies of his works were widely circulated, a fact that greatly contributed to the spread of the Netherlandish style to central and southern Europe.
Often the exchange of ideas between the Low Countries and Italy led to patronage from nobility such Innovations in the 15th century Matthias CorvinusKing of Hungarywho commissioned manuscripts from both traditions.
Van Eyck and van der Weyden were both highly placed in the Burgundian court, with van Eyck in particular assuming roles for which an ability to read Latin was necessary; inscriptions found on his panels indicate that he had a good knowledge of both Latin and Greek.
Van Eyck was a valet de chambre at the Burgundian court and had easy access to Philip the Good. National Gallery of ArtWashington. Van der Weyden moved portraiture away from idealisation and towards more naturalistic representation.
There was a rise in demand for printmaking using woodcuts or copperplate engraving and other innovations borrowed from France and southern Italy.
Even progressive artists such as Jan Gossaert made copies, such as his reworking of van Eyck's Madonna in the Church. He moved to Antwerp inwhen Quentin Matsys was the head of the local painters' guildand the two became friends. Hieronymus Boschactive in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, remains one of the most important and popular of the Netherlandish painters.
His better-known works are instead characterised by fantastical elements that tend towards the hallucinatory, drawing to some extent from the vision of hell in van Eyck's Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych. Bosch followed his own muse, tending instead towards moralism and pessimism.
His paintings, especially the triptychsare among the most significant and accomplished of the late Netherlandish period   Pieter Bruegel the ElderThe Hunters in the Snow Kunsthistorisches MuseumVienna.
The most famous of Bruegel's several winter landscapes, the panel is indicative of how painting in the midth century tended towards the secular and everyday life. The Reformation brought changes in outlook and artistic expression as secular and landscape imagery overtook biblical scenes.
Sacred imagery was shown in a didactic and moralistic manner, with religious figures becoming marginalized and relegated to the background. His work retains many 15th-century conventions, but his perspective and subjects are distinctly modern.
Sweeping landscapes came to the fore in paintings that were provisionally religious or mythological, and his genre scenes were complex, with overtones of religious skepticism and even hints of nationalism.
These artists sought to show the world as it actually was,  and to depict people in a way that made them look more human, with a greater complexity of emotions than had been previously seen. This first generation of Early Netherlandish artists were interested in the accurate reproduction of objects according to Panofsky they painted "gold that looked like gold" paying close attention to natural phenomena such as light, shadow and reflection.
They moved beyond the flat perspective and outlined figuration of earlier painting in favour of three-dimensional pictorial spaces. The position of viewers and how they might relate to the scene became important for the first time; in the Arnolfini PortraitVan Eyck arranges the scene as if the viewer has just entered the room containing the two figures.
Egg tempera was the dominant medium until the s, and while it produces both bright and light colours, it dries quickly and is a difficult medium in which to achieve naturalistic textures or deep shadows.
Oil allows smooth, translucent surfaces and can be applied in a range of thicknesses, from fine lines to thick broad strokes. It dries slowly and is easily manipulated while still wet.
These characteristics allowed more time to add subtle detail  and enable wet-on-wet techniques. Smooth transitions of colour are possible because portions of the intermediary layers of paint can be wiped or removed as the paint dries.
Oil enables differentiation among degrees of reflective light, from shadow to bright beams,  and minute depictions of light effects through the use of transparent glazes. Typically the sap was removed and the board well-seasoned before use.Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and inventions which span the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th century through the 16th century.
The era is marked by profound technical advancements such as the printing press, linear perspective in drawing, patent law, double shell domes and Bastion fortresses. 15th century The technologies that developed in Europe during the second half of the 15th century were commonly associated by authorities of the time with a key theme in Renaissance thought: the rivalry of the Moderns and the Ancients.
Transcript of Impacts of 15th- and 16th-Century Advances on Exploration and Trade. The recent innovations in printing at this time led to many printed copies of Geography and other such maps being made, making maps both more consistently accurate and more abundant, especially in comparison with the hand-drawn portolani.
During the .
Located in NSW, Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre (MacICT) is a collaboration between the NSW Department of Education and Macquarie University. Sep 22, · The middle ages (5th – 15th Centuries AD), often termed The Dark Ages, were actually a time of great discovery and invention.
The Middle ages also saw major advances in technologies that already existed, and the adoption of many Eastern technologies .
Sep 11, · The emergence of modern Europe, – Economy and society. The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age.