Violent ethnopolitical conflicts, separatist movements, rivalry for autonomy or political power, or territorial control, economic dislocation, among others, assail the integrity of the developing state, thereby impelling hegemonic actors major states, Intergovernmental Organizations IGOsand International Financial Institutions - IFIs to intervene in order to: The ever-increasing negative effects of transnational social forces tend to generate the pervasive force of a neo-liberal cosmopolitan moral view of international relations that increasingly sanctions both military and non-military interventions to maintain the existing structure of states and international society.
Includes only "free" elections. Voter turnout varies considerably between nations. Confusingly, some of the factors that cause internal differences do not seem to apply on a global level.
For instance, nations with better-educated populaces do not have higher turnouts. There are two main commonly cited causes of these international differences: However, there is much debate over the relative impact of the various factors.
Cultural factors[ edit ] Wealth and literacy have some effect on turnout, but are not reliable measures. Countries such as Angola and Ethiopia have long had high turnouts, but so have the wealthy states of Europe.
The United Nations Human Development Index shows some correlation between higher standards of living and higher turnout. The age of a democracy is also an important factor. Elections require considerable involvement by the population, and it takes some time to develop the cultural habit of voting, and the associated understanding of and confidence in the electoral process.
This factor may explain the lower turnouts in the newer democracies of Eastern Europe and Latin America. Much of the impetus to vote comes from a sense of civic duty, which takes time and certain social conditions that can take decades to develop: Older people tend to vote more than youths, so societies where the average age is somewhat higher, such as Europe; have higher turnouts than somewhat younger countries such as the United States.
Populations that are more mobile and those that have lower marriage rates tend to have lower turnout. In countries that are highly multicultural and multilingual, it can be difficult for national election campaigns to engage all sectors of the population. The nature of elections also varies between nations.
In the United States, negative campaigning and character attacks are more common than elsewhere, potentially suppressing turnouts.
The focus placed on get out the vote efforts and mass-marketing can have important effects on turnout. Partisanship is an important impetus to turnout, with the highly partisan more likely to vote.
Turnout tends to be higher in nations where political allegiance is closely linked to class, ethnic, linguistic, or religious loyalties. Nations with a party specifically geared towards the working class will tend to have higher turnouts among that class than in countries where voters have only big tent parties, which try to appeal to all the voters, to choose from.
Rules and laws are also generally easier to change than attitudes, so much of the work done on how to improve voter turnout looks at these factors. Making voting compulsory has a direct and dramatic effect on turnout. Simply making it easier for candidates to stand through easier nomination rules is believed to increase voting.
Conversely, adding barriers, such as a separate registration process, can suppress turnout. The salience of an election, the effect that a vote will have on policy, and its proportionality, how closely the result reflects the will of the people, are two structural factors that also likely have important effects on turnout.
Voter registration[ edit ] The modalities of how electoral registration is conducted can also affect turnout.
For example, until "rolling registration" was introduced in the United Kingdom, there was no possibility of the electoral register being updated during its currency, or even amending genuine mistakes after a certain cut off date. The register was compiled in October, and would come into force the next February, and would remain valid until the next January.
The electoral register would become progressively more out of date during its period of validity, as electors moved or died also people studying or working away from home often had difficulty voting.Extended reading list (with links) and study guide on the causes of inequality by class, gender, race, income, occupation, and other social distinctions.
The results of this study extend the knowledge in the field of Institutional Theory about the origin of organizational legitimacy and the causes which condition it. It also facilitates improving the strategic planning of organizations by displaying the legitimacy preferences based on each person’s profile.
A Study on the Legitimacy of the Peace Line Written by Professor Hosaka Yuji, Prof. of Department of Humanities, Sejoung University. One of the most frequently used expressions by Japan when persuading other countries in relation to.
Follow Up on Usury Post: I wasn't following the comments on my "In Defense of Usury" post, since it was primarily just an excerpt from Karlan and Zinman's argument.I confess that I was surprised to see that there were so many comments and so much controversy about the study described in .
are even legitimacy arguments within China and Taiwan as mainland China claims they rightfully control Taiwan and Taiwan claims they rightfully control mainland China.
More recently the Arab Spring raised questions as to which group is the legitimate government. In some nations this legitimacy is determined by the masses, however there are some cases that the legitimacy is determined by the ruling elite which are a small portion of the population.
Given that not all nations are democracies, the legitimacy can be forced upon the people by a single individual.