He was a correspondent in Tokyo during the occupation, and also was an influencial financial columnist in s. His career as a singer, however, has not been well known outside Japan. Crane was the second recorded Western performer who sang in Japanese.
Are these assumptions justified? Here, our review of the comparative database from across the behavioral sciences suggests both that there is substantial variability in experimental results across populations and that WEIRD subjects are particularly unusual compared with the rest of the species — frequent outliers.
The domains reviewed include visual perception, fairness, cooperation, spatial reasoning, categorization and inferential induction, moral reasoning, reasoning styles, self-concepts and related motivations, and the heritability of IQ.
The findings suggest that members of WEIRD societies, including young children, are among the least representative populations one could find for generalizing about humans.
Many of these findings involve domains that are associated Cuhk psy thesis database fundamental aspects of psychology, motivation, and behavior — hence, there are no obvious a priori grounds for claiming that a particular behavioral phenomenon is universal based on sampling from a single subpopulation.
Overall, these empirical patterns suggests that we need to be less cavalier in addressing questions of human nature on the basis of data drawn from this particularly thin, and rather unusual, slice of humanity.
We close by proposing ways to structurally re-organize the behavioral sciences to best tackle these challenges. Introduction In the tropical forests of New Guinea, the Etoro believe that for a boy to achieve manhood he must ingest the semen of his elders.
The Etoro revile these Kaluli practices, finding them disgusting. To become a man in these societies, and eventually take a wife, every boy undergoes these initiations.
However, this target article is not about these peoples. It is about a truly unusual group: Given that scientific knowledge about human psychology is largely based on findings from this subpopu- lation, we ask just how representative are these typical subjects in light of the available comparative database.
How justified are researchers in assuming a species-level generality for their findings? We pursued this question by constructing an empirical review of studies involving large-scale comparative exper- imentation on important psychological or behavioral variables.
Although such larger-scale studies are highly informative, they are rather rare, especially when com- pared to the frequency of species-generalizing claims. When such comparative projects were absent, we relied on large assemblies of studies comparing two or three populations, and, when available, on meta-analyses.
The Website of Anthropology Department The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Despite increasing student demand and faculty interest. the Gender Studies Programme of the Chinese University of Hong Kong is the only one of its kind in tertiary and post-graduate education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). however. does not count as part of their normal workload. If you have any inquiries related to your CUHK computer account, Students may also check their academic results and thesis/portfolio assessment progress (for RPgs) on the GS Platform to deliver information to you through various communication channels by using your personal data maintained in the database of the University.
The present review does not address those phenom- ena assessed by individual difference measures for which the guiding assumption is variability among populations.
Phenomena such as personal values, emotional expressive- ness, and personality traits are expected a priori to vary across individuals, and by extension, societies. Indeed, the goal of much research on these topics is to identify the ways that people and societies differ from one another.
For example, a number of large projects have sought to map out the world on dimensions such as values Hofstede ; Inglehart et al. Similarly, we avoid the vast psycho- pathology literature, which finds much evidence for both variability and universality in psychological pathologies Kleinman ; Tsengbecause this work focuses on individual-level and unusual variations in psychologi- cal functioning.
Instead, we restrict our exploration to those domains which have largely been assumed, at least until recently, to be de facto psychological universals. Finally, we also do not address societal-level behavioral universals, or claims thereof, related to phenomena such as dancing, fire making, cooking, kinship systems, body adornment, play, trade, and grammar, for two reasons.
First, at this surface level alone, such phenomena do not make specific claims about universal underlying psycho- logical or motivational processes. Second, systematic, quantitative, comparative data based on individual-level measures are typically lacking for these domains.
Our examination of the representativeness of WEIRD subjects is necessarily restricted to the rather limited data- base currently available. We have organized our presen- tation into a series of telescoping contrasts showing, at each level of contrast, how WEIRD people measure up relative to the available reference populations.
Our first contrast compares people from modern industrialized societies with those from small-scale societies. Our second telescoping stage contrasts people from Western societies with those from non-Western industrialized societies. Next, we contrast Americans with people from other Western societies.
Finally, we contrast university- educated Americans with non—university-educated Amer- icans, or university students with non-student adults, depending on the available data.Books by Language Minnesota Prevention Resource Center - Open Libraries St.
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provided: (a) the authors, title and full bibliographic details are given (b) a. fireworks. KAAU Login Page caninariojana.com&Doctors-system/caninariojana.com ãæÇÞÚ ÇáãÏíäÉ ÇáãäæÑÉ Úáì ÇáÇäÊÑäÊ. On March 20, , CUHK-BGI(SZ) was established, while the ceremony was held in CUHK.
On April 24, , the Press Conference regarding Three Extreme-Environment Animals Genome Projects was convened in BGI-Shenzhen.
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