Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Paul and Elder,
Exploring theory and practice Curriculum theory and practice. The organization of schooling and further education has long been associated with the idea of a curriculum. But what actually is curriculum, and how might it be conceptualized? We explore curriculum theory and practice and its relation to informal education.
It was, literally, a course. In Latin curriculum was a racing chariot; currere was to run. A useful starting point for us here might be the definition offered by John Kerr and taken up by Vic Kelly in a standard work on the subject.
This gives us some basis to move on — and for the moment all we need to do is highlight two of the key features: Learning is planned and guided. We have to specify in advance what we are seeking to achieve and how we are to go about it.
The definition refers to schooling. We should recognize that our current appreciation of curriculum theory and practice emerged in the school and in relation to other schooling ideas such as subject and lesson. In what follows we are going to look at four ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice: Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted.
Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students — product. More this will be revealed as we examine the theory underpinning individual models. Curriculum as a syllabus to be transmitted Many people still equate a curriculum with a syllabus.
Syllabus, naturally, originates from the Greek although there was some confusion in its usage due to early misprints. Basically it means a concise statement or table of the heads of a discourse, the contents of a treatise, the subjects of a series of lectures.
What we can see in such documents is a series of headings with some additional notes which set out the areas that may be examined. A syllabus will not generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied.
Thus, an approach to curriculum theory and practice which focuses on syllabus is only really concerned with content. Where people still equate curriculum with a syllabus they are likely to limit their planning to a consideration of the content or the body of knowledge that they wish to transmit.
Curriculum as product The dominant modes of describing and managing education are today couched in the productive form. Education is most often seen as a technical exercise.Curriculum as Praxis 3 This paper presents a critical policy analysis that focuses on Singapore as a knowledge society considering its general education and technical education and training systems.
Critical Thinking Learning Models Analyzing and Assessing Thinking In this section, we offer an interactive model which details the analysis and assessment of reasoning, and enables you to apply the model to real life problems. Ford and Profetto-McGrath () outlined a model for CT within the context of curriculum as praxis.
Praxis is a form of action and reflection, which changes both the world and one's understanding. critical thinking has been consistently cited as both necessary and difficult to implement.
Thinking is a natural process, but left to itself, it is often biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, and.
Critical thinking is an important outcome criterion of higher education in any discipline including nursing. If nursing programs envisaged preparing graduates who are equipped with critical thinking, then the educators who plan and deliver the programs must exhibit higher level thinking in their teaching practices.
Chapters on: three fundamental human interests (after Habermas); curriculum as product; teachers as curriculum makers; curriculum as practice; practical curriculum development; curriculum as praxis; critical curriculum practice; developing curriculum praxis; curriculum praxis and teachers’ work.